The home studio can be incredibly sophisticated these days, very much capable of recording, mixing and even self finalizing your tracks to a high standard in the comfort of your own tailored musical space. If you are willing to invest some time into learning some basic engineering skills and invest some money, great results can be achieved. You will be able to potentially save money on studio bills and benefit from the great convenience of a studio in your house. This would especially have benefits at the composing, arranging, recording and idea building stage for an acoustic musician and potentially the entire production process for an electronic musician.
Typically you would require the folllowing equipment for a home studio. PC or Mac computer $1,000.00 - $2,000.00, Sequencing software $200.00 - $500.00, Audio Interface (sound card) $100.00 - $900.00, Controller keyboard, $200.00 - $500.00, Microphone selection $1,000.00 and possibly a selection of software synthesizers $200.00 - $500.00, studio monitors $250.00 - $1,000.00. Of course the sophistication and exact selection of the above equipment will have a bearing on the final pricing, remember to budget for some microphone and line level leads too.
The beauty of a home studio is that it can serve your core skill set remarkably well and also potentially open up new revenue streams which you may not previously have considered. There is for example a large demand for spoken word recording so as long as you have a nice quiet space which is reasonably well acoustically treated you might develop a side line for voice over recording which can be quite lucrative. Voice work is necessary for radio advertising, video narration, corporate presentations and of course translation from one language to another. Other potential revenue streams are karaoke style ‘studio experiences’ for people who would like to record their vocals against a backing track. Enhancing stereo 2 track or multitrack location recordings, forensic and restoration work and composing music to video. The scope for a revunue stream is there if you are willing to put in the hours to learn your new equipment and invest in the initial cost of setting up. To ensure your home studio is optimized here are some tried and tested tips :
Acoustic treatment - overlooked but affects every sonic decision
If there is one area which will provide multiple benefits it is acoustic treatment. Basic acoustic treatment can ensure both your recordings and mixes are better. Acoustic treatment does not come across as one of the most interesting of purchases for the home studio but you will hear the benefits on every recording and mix. Initially it is wise to tame the early reflections from the side walls relative to your monitoring position. This can be done with acoustic foam tiles (10cms thick ideally) and also Rockwool/Owens Corning type products (a 1m x 1m sized placement would be a good starting point). Once this is installed you could also consider a ceiling cloud which is a similar construct but attaches to the ceiling between yourself and your monitors. This is a great way to improve the focus of the stereo image when mixing. Bass traps are more bulky and often neglected but you can make good improvements by straddling corners of the room with slabs of Owens corning or Rockwool type products. A basic frame can be prepared to hold the slabs and they can be covered in fire retardent studio fabric. With acoustic accuracy comes more focused recordings, a more natural and even tonal balance and mixes that will translate better to other playback systems.
Mount monitors securely and in the best room position
Most home studios will have a set of monitoring speakers, the positioning of the speakers has a direct impact on the quality of sound you hear. Ideally you should create an equilateral triangle with your head and the 2 speakers at each of the 3 corners. Try to align the tweeter at ear height on a robust set of speaker stands. Speaker stands give your monitors a non resonant anchor point which can focus the sound and reduce resonances that can blur the stereo image and add unrelated sonic information to what you hear. If it is not possible to use stands then purchase neoprene (soft rubber) mounts or a sheet so that you have provided some isolation from any desk or shelving that your monitors are placed on.If at all possible try and locate your monitors away from the corners of the room and also try and bring them into the room as opposed to being close to the wall. This reduces ‘bass tip up’ which can reduce the accuracy of the low frequency response of the speaker. This is especially true of rear firing reflex loaded speakers.
24 bit recording has numerous advantages - make sure you are getting them
These days disk space is fairly cheap and most sound cards can record at 24 bit, this is highly recommended. It allows you to record your audio signals at a lower level (peak at -14dBFS) and yet still retain very high fidelity compared with 16 bit recordings. This usually means less distortion as well because the electronics in mic preamps and mixers is less heavily driven creating a cleaner less distorted sound. Distortion is to be avoided at all costs in the home studio, you can always add controlled amounts after the recording has been made but it is virtually impossible to remove once unintentional distortion has been created at the point of recording.
The condenser microphone - a studio workhorse
Having a great condenser mic will always be a useful addition to any home studio equipment inventory, this type of microphone is very versatile and produces a crisp, clear and well rounded sound for vocals and spoken word. They also perform very well on acoustic instrumentation such as acoustic guitars. An indispensable studio addition, if you select a model with pad switches you can even record sources that produce high SPL signals and use a pair for example for drum overheads. Ensure your mic preamp arrangements can provide 48 volt phantom power before investing.
Single driver speaker - clear information about the critical mid range
One very useful and often overlooked addition to a home studio is the use of a small, single source mono speaker with a focus on the mid range. In professional studios it is common to see a single small sized speaker as well as near field monitors. This type of speaker was most commonly known as an Auratone as this was the company which historically manufactured them. Avantone now make a modern version and I suggesting using just one and routing your mono summed mix down to the speaker from time to time. This allows you to check mono sum compatibility and also provides a ‘no messing around’ mid range check. These type of speakers despite their simplicity allow you to get a very clear picture of whether your vocals sit right and whether your snare and other mid range elements are well balanced. All reproduction systems play mid range and so it is a critical area of the mix to get right.
Mix where the ears response is most linear and protect your hearing
Another tool of great value is an SPL meter. (Sound pressure level meter) Realistic make a basic analog model which allows you to see in decibels the level that you are monitoring the music at. This allows you to aim towards the 80dB SPL ideal where the human ears response naturally even out (read up on “Fletcher Munson curves”). In addition it allows you to see what your daily exposure is to sound levels and ensure you protect your all important hearing by keeping exposure within safe limits. (See your local authorities recommendations online)
Warm recordings sound expensive and reduce listening fatigue
And finally warmth is a much talked about quality when working with digital audio. If you have some nice analog equipment thats great but if not, all is not lost when it comes to making warm recordings and mixes. Warmth is a subjective term but most people agree that subdued high frequencies contribute to a subjectively warm sound. Try experimenting with some analog emulations in software form. (EQ’s and compressors) There are many great analog emulations available as software plug ins. In addition you could try some tape saturation plug ins and do not hesitate to use the humble low pass filter or high shelf to cut excessive high frequencies to produce a smoother and less harsh sound. A great tip is to add a low cost ribbon microphone to your gear list and use it as a supplementary microphone when recording any given source. When blended in with your main mic choice you can produce a more mellow and rounded sound which can produce the desired warmth at mix down time.
Barry Gardner operates SafeandSound audio mastering a low cost, high end online mastering studio. Equipment includes PMC IB1S, HCL VaRiS (Vari mu), SADiE DAW, Sontec inspired custom eq, TC Electronic 2400 HS EQ and ear selected software suite.